Of the 56.4 million deaths worldwide in 2015, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and strokeaccounted for a combined 15 million deaths. Of these two, IHD is the single largest cause of death worldwide, causing 7,249,000 deaths in 2008 or 12.7% of total global mortality. Eighty percent of those were from poor and middle-income countries.
A study published in PLOS ONE in March 2017 by clinicians from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Hubei, China, investigated the association between AVF flows and inflammation, cardiovascular events and deaths in Chinese hemodialysis patients who have a radio-cephalic fistula (AVF). They recognized that AVF flows impact dialysis adequacy in hemodialysis patients. But there was limited data for different access flow levels on outcomes related to long-term dialysis Chinese patients.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was instituted in 1972 as a last ditch effort to save children experiencing cardiac and or respiratory failure. During the first decades of ECMO therapy, it was not widely used in adults because studies had not shown benefits for the adult population. However, within the last decade with better ECMO technology, patient management and the H1N1 swine flu epidemic of 2007-2008 that left patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there has been a significant increase in adult ECMO.
The circulatory system in the human body stretches 66,000 miles, more than two and a half times the circumference of the Earth.